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Why is India’s IT Ministry Keen On Developing an Indigenous Web Browser?

The goal is to build a web browser that can, by default, trust websites that have SSL certificates issued by CCA-regulated authorities.

With an objective to kickstart work on developing India’s own web browser, the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) has launched the Indian Web Browser Development Challenge (IWBDC) for Indian tech enthusiasts and innovators on August 9, 2023.

According to a press release issued by MeitY, the Indian government is envisioning to build a web browser, which will have its “own trust store with an inbuilt CCA India root certificate.” This essentially means that the browser will by default trust websites that have SSL certificates issued by CCA-regulated authorities, which is problematic given the history of these authorities (more on this below).

Quick context: The Controller of Certifying Authorities (CCA) licenses and regulates the working of Certifying Authorities in India. Certifying Authorities issue digital certificates called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which essentially authenticates a website’s identity and enables an encrypted and secure connection between two systems online. The certification protects user information on a website.

Speaking at the launch, Arvind Kumar from CCA highlighted that currently, India depends on SSL certificates issued by foreign entities as foreign browsers only trust those certificates. To reduce this dependence, the Indian government’s vision is to build a web browser that can automatically trust certificates issued by Indian authorities approved by the CCA.

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“Proposed browser would also focus on accessibility and user friendliness, ensuring built-in support for individuals with diverse abilities. Moreover, the browser envisions the ability to digitally sign documents using a crypto token, bolstering secure transactions and digital interactions,” the press statement added.

The IWBDC will be led by MeitY, CCA, and the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Bangalore. The Ministry has announced total cash prizes worth Rs 3.41 Crore for the challenge.

Why it matters: Indian Certifying Authorities have been under the scanner in the past for issuing unauthorised certificates, an issue that was also flagged by Google and Microsoft. In 2014, the CCA initiated a probe into the unauthorised certificates issued by National Informatics Centre (NIC), which provides technical infrastructure for most government websites. Microsoft had also flagged the issue of “improperly issued” SSL certificates. It was further discovered that the NIC’s digital certification unit was also hacked, thus exposing lakhs of digital certificates to security vulnerabilities.

Commentators on the micro-blogging platform X, however, have highlighted that Indian SSL certificates are not trusted by major web browsers.

Given the history, it is worth deliberating upon the factors that render India’s certifying authorities untrustworthy for commonly used browsers in order to ensure safety for Indian users, e-commerce companies, and businesses.

Note: The headline was edited at 11:08 AM on August 11, 2023, for clarity.

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Written By

Curious about privacy, surveillance developments and the intersection of technology with education, caste and welfare rights.

MediaNama’s mission is to help build a digital ecosystem which is open, fair, global and competitive.



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