Apple released an emergency security update on September 13 after researchers uncovered a vulnerability in iMessage last week that allowed Pegasus to infect iPhones, iPads, Apple Watches, and Macs, the New York Times has reported. Israel-based NSO Group was exploiting the flaw to install Pegasus on Apple devices in a ‘zero-click attack’, which doesn’t even require a single click from the targetted user, the report revealed.
Researchers at The Citizen Lab, University of Toronto, first spotted this vulnerability on September 7 through a Saudi activist’s iPhone, on which Pegasus had been installed on the a zero-click attack in February. The finding implies that more than 1.65 billion Apple products in use worldwide have been vulnerable to Pegasus spyware at least since March.
Apple routinely markets iOS as the more secure alternative to other operating systems like Android. But the latest versions of iOS released as recently as May this year remained vulnerable to NSO’s zero-click attack, according to Citizen Lab. The emergency update should stop Pegasus from infecting Apple devices in the future, but the vulnerability raises questions about the scale at which Pegasus spyware operates and the range of infected devices.
Apple users urged to update devices immediately
To fix the security flaw in Apple devices, the company has released iOS 14.8 and iPadOS 14.8, alongside WatchOS 7.6.2, MacOS Big Sur 11.6, and a security update for MacOS Catalina. In the release notes for iOS and iPadOS, the company mentions, “Processing a maliciously crafted PDF may lead to arbitrary code execution. Apple is aware of a report that this issue may have been actively exploited.”
The Citizen Lab urged Apple users to update their devices immediately. After the update was released, Apple’s head of security and engineering Ivan Krstić said in a statement:
After identifying the vulnerability used by this exploit for iMessage, Apple rapidly developed and deployed a fix in iOS 14.8 to protect our users … Attacks like the ones described are highly sophisticated, cost millions of dollars to develop, often have a short shelf life, and are used to target specific individuals. – Ivan Krstić
How do zero-click attacks work and has NSO used them before?
A zero-click attack is the holy grail of surveillance since it can hack into a device without tipping off the user at all. Attempts at hacking typically require victims to click a suspicious link received via text or e-mail, but NSO’s zero-click attack requires no such action from the user. According to Citizen Lab, the attackers exploited a flaw in Apple’s image rendering library through iMessage.
Here are known zero-click attacks executed by the NSO Group in the past:
- WhatsApp: In 2019, the NSO Group had exploited WhatsApp’s voice call feature to install spyware on targetted devices without even requiring users to pick up the call. According to WhatsApp, the hack was used to target 1,400 people in the two-week period when it was under observation.
- iMessage: In 2020, a zero-click attack was used on iMessage to target 36 journalists at Al Jazeera, the Citizen Lab had found in December 2020. The researchers believe that the vulnerability was fixed by Apple in iOS 14.
- Pegasus Spyware: How Do We Rein In State Surveillance? Here’s What Experts Had To Say
- A Guide To The NSO Group’s Pegasus Spyware In India
- Everything That The NSO Group Has Said So Far On The Allegations Against Pegasus
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