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Aadhaar questions in Parliament: data, security, fakes, linking issues etc

Here’s a roundup of key information on Aadhaar, gleaned from questions and answers, in Parliament in the winter session, up to December 31st 2017:


1. UIDAI has also filed 30 FIRs with Police till date, for violation of the Aadhaar Act 2016. [source]
2. Aadhaar Based DBT, Ministries/Departments have reported saving of Rs. 57,029 Crore till FY 2016-17 [source], due to direct benefit transfer (DBT) under various schemes as under: Pratyaksh Hanstantrit Labh (PAHAL), Public distribution system, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) and others schemes, due to elimination of ghost beneficiaries etc [source]
3. As on 15.12.2017, out of 106.41 crore Current Account and Savings Account (CASA), 82.47 crore accounts are seeded with Aadhaar number. Within these, out of 30.76 crore Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) accounts 22.58 crore PMJDY accounts have been seeded with Aadhaar number, as on 20.12.2017.[source]
4. About 50,000 Aadhaar enrolment operators have been suspended for violating process guidelines relating to Aadhaar enrolment. [source]
5. List of 210 sites which had published citizens Aadhaar numbers (list below)
6. List of 252 services for which deadline for Aadhaar linkage has been extended till 31st March 2018 [pdf, check annexure]
7. No data: Ministry of Electronics and IT apparently have no data on grievance redressal related to Aadhaar since UIDAI does not categorise complaints, and does not distinguish between information sought and complaints registered. [source]
8. Mid Day Meals and students: 119,679,107 students in classes from 1st to 8th, between ages of 6 to 14 Years, of which 91,551,723 have Aadhaar, and 28,127,384 who don’t. States with more than a million students without Aadhaar include Maharashtra (1,905,727), Tamil Nadu (1,183,427), Bihar (5,003,318), Rajasthan (1,807,400), West Bengal (3,525,383), Madhya Pradesh (2,785,337), Uttar Pradesh (8,515,694), which, between them, account for almost 25 million un-enrolled students. [more details in the annexure here, doc file].
9. More than 119 crore Aadhaar numbers have been generated for Indian residents


Aadhaar Enrolment

1. Setting up Aadhaar enrolment in banks and post offices: Department of posts has been given the mandate of setting up Aadhaar enrolment and update in designated post offices across India. Banks have also been mandated “under Regulation 12A of the Aadhaar (Enrolment and Update) (Second Amendment) Regulations, 2017 (No. 2 of 2017) and the Aadhaar (Enrolment and Update) (Third Amendment) (No. 3 of 2017)” to set up Aadhaar enrolment and update facility in a minimum one out of every ten bank branches. [source]

2. Audit of enrolment centres: The following questions were asked about audit of enrolment centres:

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(a) whether the Government has decided to conduct an independent audit of all 50,000 odd Aadhaar enrolment centres and inspect them in person and if so, the details thereof and the aims and objectives behind the move;
(b) the number of auditors to be appointed for this purpose along with the number of Aadhaar centres allotted to each auditor for auditing;
(c) the time by which audit of Aadhaar centres will commence and be completed;

The answer lacks sufficient detail: “(a), (b) and (c): In accordance with Regulation 21(6), 23(6) and 26(2) of Aadhaar Enrolment and Update) Regulations, 2016, UIDAI conducts audit and inspection of the enrolment centres through requisite number of personnel.” [source]

3. Fake enrolment: This is important, especially given the UP case, where, allegedly, enrolment officer fingerprints were cloned and the Aadhaar enrolment software was patched to allow fake enrolments. The questions asked by Dinesh Trivedi and Adhikari Bidyendu:

“(a) whether the Government is aware of fake Aadhaar cards being issued in the country;
(b) if so, the details of complaints received and action taken thereon, state-wise;
(c) the action taken by the Government to clear documents with false biometrics and fingerprints; and
(d) whether the Government has identified the fake enrolment centres running across the country and if so, the details thereof and if not, the reasons therefor?”

The government’s answers are unconvincing:

a), (b) and (c): As per sub-section (3) of section 4 of Aadhaar Act, 2016, “an Aadhaar number, in physical or electronic form subject to authentication and other conditions, as may be specified by regulations, may be accepted as proof of identity of the Aadhaar number holder for any purpose.” Hence, question of fake Aadhaar, if used as per above provisions, does not arise.

Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has provided online authentication facility whereby any Aadhaar can be authenticated anywhere anytime. Further, an online facility has also been provided for verifying an Aadhaar, available at https://resident.uidai.gov.in/aadhaarverification.

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(d): Aadhaar enrolment can only be done on the software provided by UIDAI and by the certified and on-boarded operators engaged by authorised registrars and enrolment agencies. Hence, there is no question of fake enrolment centre.


4. FIRs involving cloning of fingerprints: The question:”(a) whether the police have arrested a few men for allegedly cloning fingerprints to subvert Aadhaar’s vaunted biometric based security system, if so, the details thereof”

The answer:

“(a): Two FIRs have been filed for allegedly attempting to breach the biometric authentication process of operators. In this regard, F.I.R No. 396 dated  2/6/17 was filed by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) in Police Station Padrona Kotwali, in the District of Kushinagar. Another F.I.R No. 0361 dated 2/6/17 was filed by UIDAI in Kotwali Police Station in the District of Deoria against the culprits. Accused persons were arrested for attempting the above crime.” [source]

5. Aadhaar for persons with disabilities: The question:

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“(a) whether hundreds of Aadhaar applicants with disabilities have not been issued Aadhaar cards, in spite of making multiple attempts;

(b) whether separate arrangements have been made for persons with disabilities, including those with cerebral palsy, for issuing of Aadhaar cards;”

The answer: “(a) and (b): No Sir. Every resident, including persons with disability/ missing biometrics, is eligible for Aadhaar. Aadhaar (Enrolment & Update) Regulations, 2016 contain detailed guidelines for Aadhaar enrolment of all categories of residents including those with disabilities. ” [source]

Linking and related issues

1. Linking Aadhaar with voters ID: Responding to a question by Dr Kulamil Samal, Minister of State for law and justice, PP Chaudhary said that the Election Commission had launched a scheme called “National Electoral Roll Purification and Authentication Programme (NERPAP), 2015″ on 3rd March, 2015 in all States/Union territories with major objective of linking of Aadhaar with electoral roll database. The programme was suspended due to the Supreme Court’s order, dated 11th August, 2015 in WP (C) No. 494 of 2012 in the matter of Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd.) and another V/s Union of India and Others. At present, the matter is sub-judice.” [source]

2. Linking with Mutual Funds, insurance policies, bank accounts and post office accounts: In response to a question from R.P. Marutharajaa, the MoS for Finance Pon. Radhakrishnan said that the deadline for linking has been extended to 31st March 2018, or six months from the date of commencement of account, whichever is later. The Central Government had amended the Rule 9 of the Prevention of Money-laundering (Maintenance of Records) Rules to this effect.[source]

Similar questions were asked by MPs Om Prakash Yadav, Nagar Rodmal, and Janardhan Mishra, regarding the need for Aadhaar for purchase of insurance. [source] A question was also asked specifically about bank accounts. [source]

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3. Aadhaar for TB treatment: MP Kirron Kher asked about the linking of Aadhaar for treatment of Tuberculosis, and steps taken for ensuring that patients are not denied treatment because of mandatory linking of Aadhaar.

MoS for Health, Ashwini Kumar Choubey said that only those who seek financial benefits from the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), will have to submit proof of possession of Aadhaar, or provides any valid proof of identity and gets enrolled for Aadhaar. “All services including free diagnosis and treatment of Tuberculosis patients will continue without interruption.” [source]

4. Linking Aadhaar with PAN: responding to a question from Hariom Singh Rathore, MoS Finance Shiv Pratap Shukla said that the deadline for linking Aadhaar with PAN is 31st March 2018, for those who have Aadhaar. Else they may give the enrolment ID of the Aadhaar application form.

Also, as per sub-section (2) of Section 139AA of the Income Tax act, every person having PAN as on 1st July, 2017 and eligible to obtain Aadhaar, is required to intimate his Aadhaar Number to the prescribed authority in Income-tax Department on or before a date to be notified by the Central Government in the Official Gazette. Central Government has not yet notified any such date till now. [source]

5. No bundling with re-verification of mobile subscribers: “To ensure the safety and privacy of the mobile subscriber’s data, DoT has already directed all TSPs on 23.10.2017 not to bundle any of their services like Broadband, Direct-To-Home (DTH), Payment Banks, etc., with Aadhaar based re-verification of mobile subscribers.” [source]

This is the guideline that Airtel may have violated.

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6. Cancelation of mobile numbers post March 2018 deadline: “Further, there are no directions so far from the Hon’ble Supreme Court on the issue of discontinuation of SIM cards registered with legal identity cards but not re-verified through Aadhaar based E-KYC process by March, 2018.” [source]

Public Distribution System

1. Derailing of public distribution system in Jharkhand due to Aadhaar: D Raja asks about the “derailing of Public Distribution System in Jharkhand resulting in several starvation deaths of marginalised people such as single women,manual labourers and elderly persons due to denying them ration for their failure to link their ration card to Aadhaar”

MoS for Consumer Affairs CR Chaudhary says that “on inquiry, the allegations of death due to starvation have not been substantiated” and the Central government’s Department of Food and Public Distribution issued detailed instructions to all the States/UTs vide D.O. letter No. 1(8)/2017-PD-II dated 24.10.2017 to ensure strict compliance with the provisions contained in the Notification SO No. 371[E] dated 8.2.2017 [as amended from time to time] to prevent denial of foodgrains to the eligible beneficiaries under NFSA as per their entitlement. Apart from this, the “effective enforcement of the measures for improvement in the functioning of PDS was further emphasised vide D.O. letter No. 1(8)/2017-PD-II dated 12.12.2017 to the Chief Secretary, Jharkhand.


2. Denying of ration due to lack of Aadhaar number

“As per provisions of Notification issued by this Department on dated 8/2/17 [as amended from time to time], eligible beneficiaries under NFSA, 2013 who do not possess Aadhaar, are required to make application for Aadhaar enrolment by giving their name, address, mobile number with Ration Card number and other details with their fair price shop owners or through the web portal provided for the purpose by State/UT. In the light of the provisions of the above notification, benefits under NFSA cannot be denied by State/UT Governments for the only reasons that eligible beneficiaries do not possess Aadhaar. The said notification further provides that till the Aadhaar is assigned to the beneficiaries of subsidies under NFSA, the entitlements under NFSA shall be given to such individuals on production of Ration Card and either Aadhaar Enrolment ID slip or copy of his/her request made to State Government for Aadhaar Enrolment alongwith any of the 8 documents listed in the said notification.” [source]

3. “Beneficiaries under NFSA including those in Jaisalmer and Bikarner in Rajasthan, who do not possess Aadhaar are required to make application as per provisions of above Notification latest by 31/3/2018, for Aadhaar enrolment by giving their name, address, mobile number with Ration Card number and other details with their fair price shop owners or through the web portal provided for the purpose by State/UT.” [source]

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Biometrics issues

1. Denial of rations due to biometrics failure: on whether Government has taken any steps to tackle the problem arising out of improper or failed capture of biometrics of aged people and their inability to register for Aadhaar

“(d): A letter no. 1(8)/2017-PD-II dated 24/10/2017 has been issued to all State/UT Governments which interalia covers the issues arising out of failure of biometric authentication at PoS and the method to distribute foodgrains in such cases.” [source]

2. Testing biometrics readers for “liveness detection”: Question: (d) whether Government has tested the biometric readers certified by UIDAI for liveness detection, if so, the details thereof, if not, the reasons therefor; and
(e) whether Government has proposed the approach of dummy Aadhaar numbers to solve the security issues associated with Aadhaar, if so, the details thereof?

Answer: “(d) and (e): UIDAI uses “assisted mode” for performing biometric authentication. This means that the process of authentication occurs in the presence of/or supervision of AUA/KUA in the liveness mode. Further, the AUAs/KUAs are obligated by the terms of their contract, Aadhaar Act and its Regulations, circulars, guidelines, directions etc. to perform such authentication as per the UIDAI approved processes. Any violation will render them liable for action under the law of the land. Moreover, AUA/KUAs are at liberty to use their own additional factors of authentication such as physical verification, additional passwords, their own OTPs etc to enhance their security.”


Security, Privacy and Transparency

1. Process to ensure transparency of Aadhaar usage: To ensure transparency and genuineness of the use of Aadhaar, following measures have been taken by UIDAI:

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i. A notification is sent on registered e-mail ID of Aadhaar number holder for every successful or failed biometric and One Time Password (OTP) based authentication transaction.
ii. UIDAI has also provided a facility on UIDAI portal to view “Aadhaar Authentication History” for all types of transactions, which enables an Aadhaar number holder to view details of all successful and failed transactions performed by him / her in the past few months.” [source]

2. Steps taken to secure Aadhaar

Concerns regarding security of the Aadhaar data have been addressed through legal, organizational and technological measures. Data Protection measures have also been mandated for the requesting entities and ecosystem partners to address the security concerns related to Aadhaar data. Government is fully alive to the need to maintain highest level of data security, privacy and is deploying the necessary technology and infrastructure. The architecture of Aadhaar ecosystem has been designed to ensure non-duplication, data integrity and other related management aspects of security & privacy in Aadhaar database. Security is an integral part of the system from the initial design to the final stage. Security of Aadhaar data is monitored at all the times i.e. at rest, in transit and in storage. UIDAI has been declared ISO 27001:2013 certified by STQC with respect to Information Security which has added another layer of information security assurance. In pursuance of sub-section (1) of Section 70 of the IT Act 2000, UIDAI data has also been declared as protected system by National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre.

Additionally, various policies and procedures have been defined clearly which are reviewed and updated continually thereby appropriately controlling and monitoring any movement of people, material and data in and out of UIDAI premises, particularly the data centres. Physical security of UIDAI Data Centres is being managed by armed CISF personnel. Further strengthening of security of data is an ongoing process, and all possible steps are taken in this regard. Chapter VI (Protection of Information) of the Aadhaar Act, 2016 and the Aadhaar (Data Security) Regulations, 2016, framed there-under, have been specifically drafted keeping in account the various security requirements in respect of data collected by UIDAI. [source]. Also similar question in the Rajya Sabha [source]

3. Aadhaar data accessed by CIA? ” No, Sir. Aadhaar data has not been accessed by any unauthorised agency including Central Intelligence Agency.”

Airtel eKYC

“(b) and (c): Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has received complaints from some residents that their payment bank accounts have been opened without their consent. In this regard, UIDAI has issued notices against the violators and also imposed financial disincentives.
(d): There are specific provisions in the Aadhaar Act, 2016 to prevent the misuse of Aadhaar information. As per Section 8 of the Act, it is mandatory to take consent of an individual specifying the purpose of authentication. As per Section 29 (3)(a) of the Act, no identity information available with a requesting entity shall be used for any purpose, other than that specified to the individual at the time of submitting any identity information for authentication. For any violations, there are strict provisions for punishment with imprisonment and fine under Sections 38(g), 40 and 41 of the Act.” [source]

Deactivation of Aadhaar

The question:

“(a) whether Ministry has received any memoranda from citizens for their Aadhaar cards to be deactivated or cancelled, if so, the steps proposed in this regard;
(b) whether any provision exists in Aadhaar Act for cancellation of Aadhaar, especially for those who do not avail any welfare benefits from Government, if so, the details thereof and if not, the reasons therefor; and
(c) whether a citizen can deny consent for using their Aadhaar card for new schemes other than those which existed at the time of enrolment, if so, the details.”

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The answer:
1. All the requests received for deactivation or cancellation from citizens are dealt as per Para 27, 28 and 29 of the Aadhaar (Enrolment & Update) Regulations, 2016. Para 27 of the Aadhaar (Enrolment & Update) Regulations, 2016 makes provision for cancellation of Aadhaar.


Aadhaar Leaks

MoS of Electronics and IT said that approximately 210 websites of Central Government, State Government departments and some educational institutes were displaying the list of beneficiaries along with their name, address, other details and Aadhaar numbers for information of general public. The concerned departments/websites were instructed to remove the Aadhaar and other personal data from the said websites. [source]

However, the government did not respond to the question regarding legal/penal action against its own departments. The list of sites:

1 Department of School Education Y.S.R. District KADAPA
2 Tripura Board of Secondary Education
3 Composite Regional Centre, Bhopal
4 Commissioner of BC Welfare
5 O/o. Deputy Educational Officer, Tanuku Division, Tanuku
6 Tripura Board of Secondary Education
7 Swachh Bharat mission – Govt. of Andhra Pradesh
8 Director, Developing Caste Welfares, Gujarat State
9 Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
10 UP Minority Welfare Department
11 Vijaywada Municipal Corporation
12 Vishakapatnam Websites
13 Ministry of minority affairs ( GOI)
14 Delhi Government ( Main website)
15 Haryana Govt. Education( HSSPP)
16 Kerala Daily Farmers Welfare Fund Board
17 Photobucket

18 Xavier University Bhubaneshwar
19 Soil Health Card
20 Chiktara University
21 Science Krishna
22 Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus
23 Acharya Nagarjuna University
24 Pondicherry University
25 Coir Board
26 Khadi & Village Industries Commission
27 Department of Women and Child Development, Govt of NCT of Delhi
28 Kendriya Vidyalaya NHPC, Loktak
29 State Health Society Bihar

30 Thrissur Education District
31 Mota Chashma
32 Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus
33 NIT Nagpur
34 Ministry of textile

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35 Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna
36 Andhra Pradesh State Housing Corporation
37 Janambhoomi- Maa Vooru (Andhra Pradesh)
38 National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd
39 Directorate of Higher Education, Government of Maharashtra
40 SC & ST Development, Minority & backward Class welfare department
41 Career Plus
42 Apeejay Education Society
43 Chandigarh Engineering College
44 Ministry of women & child development
45 Sri Sai Group Of Institutes ,Badhani
46 Chandra Anna Bima
47 NREGA- AP Govt.
48 National centre for design and Product Development
49 Ministry Of Petroleum and Natural Gas
50 President of India Official Website
51 District Magistrate- Wardha
52 Share to success-documents
53 University Of Kerala
54 Directorate of Sainik Welfare Kerala
55 University of Delhi
56 Karnataka Govt Official Website
57 Sikkim Manipal University
58 National Jute Board
59 Ali Yavar Jung National institute Of speech and hearing Disabilities.
60 Department of Medical Education & Research, Haryana
61 Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation
62 Department of Backward Classes, Most Backward Classes & Minorities Welfare
63 Government OF Jharkhand
64 Consumer Redressal Forum
65 Central University Of Orissa
66 Directorate of Technical Education, Maharashtra State, Mumbai
67 Employee State insurance Company
68 Goa Public Service Commission
69 West Godavari
70 Gujarat Government
71 My Gov (Government of India)
72 Education Inspector , South Zone Mumbai
73 National Handicapped Finance and Development Corporation
74 National Institute of Electronics’ & Information Technology
75 SRSL Group
76 Greater Vishakhapatnam Municipal Corporation
77 Delhi Homeboard
78 Meeseva Official Portal, Govt of Telangana
79 Agra Official Website
80 Government College Daulatpur Chowk
81 Deen Dayal Upadhaya Grameen Kaushalaya Yojana
82 MBA Application data
83 Bihar Madhymik Shiksha Parishad
84 Doc Player
85 Education Portal
86 Amroha Official Website
87 Sangam University
88 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya
89 KC College Of Education
90 Joint Director, Higher Education
91 Government Of Pondicherry
92 Directorate Of Higher & Technical Education
93 Al Ameen Mission
94 Nirmal Teacher
95 Gujarat University
96 Chitrakoot Official Website
97 Government College of Women Srikakulam
98 SBDS College Of Engineering
99 Saharsa Official Website
100 Ministry Of New and Renewable Energy
101 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
102 Fatehpur.nic.in
103 Directorate Of Higher & Technical Education
104 Consumer Redressal Forum
105 Acharya Nagarjuna University
106 Varanasi.nic.in
107 National Institute of empowerment of person with visual disabilities
108 Basti Official Website
109 Muzzaffarnagar Official Website
110 National Institute of empowerment of person with Multiple disabilities
111 Himachal.nic.in
112 Greater Vishakhapatnam Municipal Corporation
113 Seraikela- kharsawan
114 Delhi.gov.in
115 Ali Yavar Jung National institute Of speech and hearing Disabilities.
116 Mumbai City Collectorate
117 Consumer Redressal Forum
118 KSN Government Degree College For Women
119 Kendriya Vidyalaya No1 Ambala
120 Gajalee
121 Pasha College Of Education
122 Sindhya Software- Office Automation System for Schools
123 IH Group Of Institutions
124 Anand College Of engineering and Management
125 Puducherry Government
126 Integrated Coastal zone Management Project

127 Kendriya Vidyalaya No 1, Kalpakkam
128 Rampur.nic.in
129 Development Commissioner (Handicrafts)
130 Azamgarh Official Website
131 Jammu And Kashmir Housing Board
132 Scribd
133 National Institute for the Empowerment of Persons with Visual Disabilities
134 Ramgarh Official Website
135 Himachal Official Website
136 Srdnagar Official Website
137 Cad Tool Solutions
138 Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills (MANAS)
139 Social Welfare Department, Govt. Of Andhra Pradesh
140 Kamlanehru college
141 Indira Gandhi krishi vishwavidyalaya
142 University Grants Commission
143 Gujarat University
144 Krishnapet
145 Directorate of Education
146 Vivekananda College
147 Aditya Institute of Technology and Management
148 Sri Guru Ram Das Instituted Of Medical Science & Research
149 Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre
150 Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre
151 RTI Online
152 Shree Ganesh Group Of Institutions
153 Sai Saraswati Institute for Teacher Education
154 Deputy Director of Higher Education, Himachal Pradesh
155 Kendriya Vidyalaya No1 Cantt Shahjahanpur
156 West Godavari
157 Punjab Urban Planning and Development Authority
158 Gadag District Grievance Redressal/Information System
159 Jira-Atlassian
160 Maharashtra Eco Tourism
161 Paste Bin
162 (1) Department of Women and Child Development, Govt of NCT of Delhi
162 (2) Department of Women and Child Development, Govt of NCT of Delhi
163 Deputy Director of Higher Education Una, Himachal Pradesh.
164 Nirmal Teacher
165 National Institute of Solar Energy
(Suryamitra – Skill Development Programme – Physical Achivements 2015 -16)
166 Mukhya Chikitsa Adhikari Muzaffarnagar
167 Adityatekkali Education
168 Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills (MANAS) – manassd.ind.in
169 Kendriya Vidyalaya, Gandhigram, Dindigul
170 Andhra University
171 Kendriya Vidyalaya NO.3, Bhatinda
172 Apptechnie Solutions

173 Andhra Bank, Yanam
174 D.A.V College of Education, Abohar
175 University of Delhi
177 Desh Bhagat Institute of Hotel Management
178 District Education Office (SE), Mansa
179 North Eastern Handicrafts and Handlooms Dev. Corpn. Ltd
180 Govt. Degree College ,Gummalakshmi Puram
181 Sunrise College
182 Dasmesh Girls College
183 Aditya Institute of Technology and Management
184 Rama University
185 CT Group of Institutions
186 PM Scholarship 2015-16
187 KC Institutes
188 Swami Parmanand Group of Colleges
189 DIET Allahabad
190 PSSC India
191 Himachal Pradesh Staff Selection Commission
193 Jawaharlal Nehru University
194 Government of Jharkhand
195 Inmyschool
196 University of Delhi
197 National School of Drama
198 Department of Plant Molecular Biology
199 Aligarh Muslim University
200 HPT Arts & RYK Science College
201 Govt. Degree College , Tekkali, Srikulam
202 Kendriya Vidyalaya , Greater Noida
203 Mizoram Govt
204 Kendriya Vidyalaya, Gurgaon
205 Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chheoki, Allahabad
206 Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh
207 Sai Prasad Green Power Pvt Ltd
208 MVN University, Palwal
209 Kendriya Vidyalaya, Bowenpally
210 Solapur Sec School, Maharashtra


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Written By

Founder @ MediaNama. TED Fellow. Asia21 Fellow @ Asia Society. Co-founder SaveTheInternet.in and Internet Freedom Foundation. Advisory board @ CyberBRICS

MediaNama’s mission is to help build a digital ecosystem which is open, fair, global and competitive.



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